The term Reverse Engineering means the relief of a real object in its three-dimensionality. It is therefore a matter of passing from a real object to a digital model of the same; in this sense, the process is the inverse of what leads from a CAD model to the production of a real object.
In Reverse Engineering, an anthropomorphic arm is an articulated arm with a terminal tip that is slid over the surface of an object and the various positions in the space are recorded and sent to the computer. From this information it is possible to reconstruct the geometry of the object. Some anthropomorphic arms can mount laser heads that allow you to acquire several points simultaneously.
A 3D scanner is a tool that analyzes an object or a real environment to detect information about its shape. The scanner sends a signal to the object to be detected, usually by laser emitter or projector. The surface of the object reflects the signal towards a camera or another survey system. Dedicated algorithms process the information contained in the images and the coordinates of the points on the surface from which the light has been reflected.
The fields of use of these technologies are extremely wide and cover numerous sectors. Digitization of technical, artistic and natural objects, trajectory acquisition for machining machine tools, measurements for dimensional verification and many more ...
The instruments used by MarMax have a precision of 0.04 mm on a single view, as far as the optical scanner is concerned, while the anthropomorphic arm has a measurement error of +/- 0.15 mm. In both cases, the precision of the reconstructed 3D model is not only influenced by the precision of the instrument, but also by the characteristics of the object and the environment (fixing fixation, surface reflexivity, mental brightness, presence of undercuts, ...) .